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PDF Ivory Coast: Public Integrity as the Main Quality to put an end to the 2002 Politico-military Crisis

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More than that, the role of international actors like Human Rights Watch, the United Nations and others to monitor the evolution of major issues in post conflict countries is also noticeable.

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Regional actors are as important. Indeed, the role of the international organizations and the bilateral partners is not to be underestimated. So as to conclude, we must keep in mind that once Burkina Faso will come out of this major crisis, the country will have to implement its transition process until the elections take place. Then, a post-crisis stabilization process could be conducted in a sustainable manner by being inclusive and comprehensive. North Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa are confronted with common challenges such as terrorism, illegal immigration, problems of governance, military empowerment, etc.

Moreover, the recent visits of King of Morocco in Senegal then in Ivory Coast, testify of the necessity of strengthening the regional cooperation.

Ivory Coast on brink of civil war as seven women killed at protest march

Moreover, sleeper cells were identified then handled in countries of the region. It is unfortunately the most vulnerable populations which are the favourite targets of the recruiters of these extremist groups.


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The armed struggle against these movements must too be maintained, but especially the anticipation of this threat has to be the keystone of this war. The African armies must be trained and supported in logistics by the West, to eradicate this permanent threat.

Burkina Faso

Besides, the African States have to develop an inclusive African strategy of fight against this plague, based on the key role of communities. Finally, the raising awareness of the youngest, remains a success factor of this fight against terror. But did these images really move the African themselves? What about the African solidarity in front of this drama, which testifies of a collective failure to ensure the human development on the continent and so to make it attractive for all these desperate persons? Let us not forget that all these migrants, fled their countries for a quest of human dignity somewhere else.

Indeed it is of the responsibility of the Africans, to make attractive their countries not only for the foreign investments but especially to avoid these flows of refugees or immigrants. It is thus urgent that the continent, which aspires to emergence, begins to emphasize the human development.


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  7. Why leave when one feels at home and cared about? Finally, let us not forget that these refugees are the visible face of the iceberg, but what about all those who cannot leave, who are in a total precariousness and thus vulnerable to terrorism and to crimes of any kind? Today, we think that the priority for the African Union AU , should be to set up a mechanism of fight against this massive illegal immigration then to dismantle the networks which are associated to it. The priority for the member states of the AU, has to be: the redistribution of the wealth, the emergence of a strong middle class, more jobs and a national attractiveness.

    An imbalance widely in favour of the most advanced countries. France, the United States, Israel and China, to quote only those, intervene either directly, thus officially technical support, equipment, logistics, training, etc. Every time, a common denominator: the economic interest, the regional positioning, etc.

    China has for example, a tradition of discreet arms sale, to regimes wishing to remain and undergoing rebellions. As for France, it operates openly in Mali for a certainly noble cause but obviously interested. The United States too, intervene discreetly in the training and the logistic backup, in particular in the fight against terrorism and regarding intelligence. The strategy of influence is thus very active in Africa on the military sector.

    Warning of Ivory Coast humanitarian crisis

    The empowerment of the African countries regarding security and defence, should constitute a priority for their leaders. The example of Ivory Coast is edifying on this question of the autonomy. Indeed, by creating with the support of France, an Institute of Strategic Studies and Defence, Ivory Coast makes a commitment on the ground of regional training, thus capacity building. Capacity building, is the basis of empowerment in the sector of security and defence.

    The African Union and the sub-regional organizations, should urgently, accelerate their reflections on the strategic autonomy which would allow the African to assume without complex , their security on the continent. We suggest that the African countries, actually emphasize training and equipment. All this, that must obey a precise and coherent sequencing.

    These countries, should formulate national security policies, laws of military and security programming and by effectively implementing them. Costa Rica is not thus autonomous militarily but it is an emerging country. The continent presents in spite of all the troubles which it faces, indicators favorable to its emergence, such as the massive investments.

    The question of the professionalization of the Ivory Coast army, is a subject which for several decades remains thorny. Indeed, after several politico-military crises , Ivory Coast reconstructs quite slowly on still fragile foundations. How to build a professional army, when the causes of the politico-military crises which shook the country, are partially taken into account in the resolution of those crises? He also reminded to the servicemen, their place in society as guarantor of freedom and territorial integrity.

    Furthermore, he reminded them that their duty is to serve the nation. Besides, from all the troubles which undermine the armies, corruption, abuses and political instrumentalization remain the most fought but still active concerns. We cannot consider the professionalization of the armies without defining it.

    What thus a professional army? The professionalization of an army, is its profound qualitative transformation at the staff level. This transformation aims at improving the national defence sector, to make it an effective and reference tool. Professionalization comes along with a reconsideration of staff reduction, rejuvenation, feminization, training, careers, academic route, etc. In most of the cases, the professionalization of the armies is a consequence of an evolving and revised defence policy.

    Professionalization thus emphasizes the capacity building of servicemen and women. For this period, the armies had their hour of glory and the question of the professionalization was of the exclusive competence of the Ministry of Defence. To give it a political arm. He said that he was tired from his work, but he mustered the energy to urge an American intervention in his country along the lines of the Iraq invasion—a request that his followers had presented to an American official outside the United States Embassy.

    I asked whether he thought Americans even knew what was going on in Ivory Coast. Above all, the generation today has been educated in the American spirit. The American spirit is freedom. The American spirit is integrity in action. When someone hits you, he hits you. Rap comes out of the ghetto, to convey the suffering of the young people there.

    When they sing, you listen, and the message comes straight at you. It smells of oranges and sewage. Because there is a high concentration of northerners and foreigners in Koumassi, the government regards it as a hotbed of rebel sympathy. He happened to be out. The landlady convinced the gendarmes that it was a case of mistaken identity, but not before they had rifled through all his belongings.

    Guindo, thirty-three years old and unemployed, is known as Cool B, for Cool Boy. Liberty to express yourself. Economic independence, too. A way of talking and walking. Though he has spent his entire life in Ivory Coast, Cool B is technically a citizen of Mali, to the north, where his father comes from. This is how he acquired Malian citizenship: One night in , Cool B was walking through his ghetto in the company of his German girlfriend, Petra, when a group of policemen approached and demanded his papers.

    He produced his Ivorian identity card his father had had him naturalized when he was sixteen , but this only enraged the police.

    Young fighters take their lead from American pop culture.

    When he asked why, they fell on him and handcuffed him. Cool B speaks with a slight stutter, and as he told me this story, in the privacy of his sweltering ten-foot-square room, the stutter grew more pronounced, his crossed leg jiggled, and the lines deepened in his face, which, with the Ray-Bans off, looked older than his years.

    A.) Introduction

    Stripped of the American style, he seemed vulnerable, as if he were trying to ward off disappointment. Ivorians from the north, who tend to share family names and the Muslim faith with immigrants from Mali, Guinea, and Burkina Faso, came in for similar treatment. The scale of his activities was small, but he made it a habit to insult pretty much everyone who crossed his path. He has a certain pride. The Frenchman was impressed. Within a couple of days, he had arranged for Cool B to record the rap at a downtown night club, and the song made him a momentary celebrity among Abidjan youth.

    It also began his long association with white people—among them Petra, his girlfriend, who eventually went back to Germany, and Eliane de Latour, a French filmmaker who employed him for a while as a researcher on a feature about Abidjan youth. Cool B keeps pictures of them on his wall, and he tries to figure out why, in spite of these connections, he remains stuck in Koumassi. Or he visits a green-card lottery Web site.

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    I want to get out of my problems one day. A dozen young men were seated on facing benches under a ramshackle tin roof; they spent twelve hours a day there, like a conclave of village elders, except that Cool B was the oldest person in the group.

    The others regarded him with respect and sought his advice. They were all immigrants or northerners, keeping an eye out for the police. They wore gold chains, tank tops, and Nike caps. At noon, a communal basin of rice and sauce appeared, and the young men plunged their right hands into it. In Europe, they set up an account to help the kids when they grow up, right? This was the story they all told: fathers who did nothing for their sons, extended families that might have made sense in a rural village but crushed the life out of them here in the city. John Wayne made a particularly strong impression.

    At twelve, he quit school—his mother was dead, his father too poor to support him—and the next year, , he came alone to Abidjan. I asked how he had imagined the city then. After a few years in the city of success, McKenzie realized that he was entirely alone. Guys go into banditry to realize their success.